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Full-day Events with Awesome Speakers

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Day 1 full schedule

April 26, 2021 @ 10:00 -

Evolution and forecasts of global renewable energy deployment

Abhishek Asthana

Abhishek Asthana

Professor

Sheffield Hallam University

UK

ABSTRACT

Total renewable energy consumption in the world is expected to increase by almost 30% over 2018-2023, covering 40% of global energy demand growth. The talk will focus on the analysis of the current renewable energy markets in the world and present forecasts for growth based on the upcoming policies, government incentives and estimates from the International Energy Agency (IEA). It will cover the major renewable energy sources – bioenergy, hydropower, wind and solar PV as well as analysis of various geographical regions for growth potential and market trends. It will break down the share of renewables in the electricity, heat and transport sectors. It would analyze the current status of deployment and costs for novel advanced biofuels. It would also draw comparisons with electric cars, the extent of their renewable electricity utilization and decarbonization potential. It would include the contribution of renewables to road transport demand over the next 5 years and focus on the main biofuels available to decarbonize road freight, now and in the long term.

Small molecule organic crystal /polymer complexes for ionics and electronics applications

Jihua Chen

Jihua Chen

Research Staff

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

USA

ABSTRACT

Crystals provide outstanding performances with their high anisotropic behaviors, while amorphous or semi-crystalline polymers offer an accessible matrix for processing and mechanical properties. We take advantages of the two extremes to generate nanostructures and nano-interfaces that are crucial for ion and hole/electron transport.(1-2)  Guided crystallization can lead to crystal/polymer complexes with well-controlled phase separation modes and grain boundary networks. We use functionalized pentacene/polymer composites to showcase the effect of polymer structures on the structure and charge mobility in these organic semiconducting systems. Similar crystallization techniques are applied to a solid electrolyte systems for ion conductivity and capacitance studies. Impedance measurements are correlated with microscopy experiments to reveal the underlying mechanism in order to improve the capacitance or ion conductivity of these systems.
 

Using data and analytics to solve DER challenges

John Dirkman

John Dirkman

Manager

Nexant

United States

ABSTRACT

Distributed Energy Resources (DER) programs are challenging because the stakes are higher: their efforts can make or break the reliability, cost, and safety of the electric grid.  As a result, DER program designers must avoid potential DER challenges, including thermal overloading, voltage swings, unbalance, and the failure of providers to deliver distributed generation and energy storage as anticipated. This presentation will review potential DER challenges and explain the data and analytics required to identify and avoid them. I will give examples from three projects: a localized solution using AI/ML for a substation being affected by high solar penetration, a utility using renewable generation, energy storage, and advanced power electronic devices to offset electric vehicle impacts, and advanced applications for topology error processing, state estimation with advanced security and bad data detection and correction capabilities, optimal scheduling, and system-level control strategies to facilitate active and reactive power control for utilization on distribution feeders with a high penetration of dispatchable resources. In this presentation I will discuss how data and analytics are used to solve various DER challenges, allowing utilities to avoid expensive T&D upgrades, as well as highlight lessons learned and implications for future DER programs. 

How to make use of agricultural waste, wood waste, overflowing wasted plastics and wasted paper as biomass fuel to power generation

Yoshinobu Kusano

Yoshinobu Kusano

Executive Advisor & General Manager

RENOVA, Inc.

Japan

ABSTRACT

Agricultural waste, wood waste, overflowing wasted plastics and wasted paper are a good sources of biomass fuel to power generation. In Japan, we have to quickly shift from fossil fuel dependency to renewable energy dependency in order to cope with the worldwide climate change. In the power sector, power generation by biomass fuel should be encouraged. In order to make its power generation cost competitive to other renewables, we have to look for inexpensive biomass fuel. All kinds of palm tree waste, sugarcane bagasse, corn stalks are a good source of biomass, for example. Forest residue such as treetop, branches as well as tree bark are also a good source of biomass. Additionally, look at the wasted plastics. If it is beyond recycle-able volume, then it is better to use those overflowed wasted plastics for power generation. Although these are not biomass, therefore, cannot get any benefit given under the name of biomass, it works well to burn it at the power station. It is environmentally much better than being disposed of to the environment instead. Disposing plastic as a waste: This action will cause marine pollution or to endanger marine life.

CFD-based optimization algorithm for thermal performance improvement of a high temperature thermocline storage tank

Lingai Luo

Lingai Luo

Research Director

French National Center for Scientific Research

France

ABSTRACT

Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology captures solar radiation and converts it into heat for electricity production. One of the important advantages of CSP in comparison with other renewable energy technologies is the simplicity of integrating thermal energy storage (TES) systems, which makes it possible to greatly improve the dispatchability. Over the last decade, the number of researches on relatively low-cost single storage tank based on the thermocline technology is significantly increasing rather than on high-priced two-tank TES system. However, the improper inlet/outlet manifold or fluid distributor may cause the mixing of hot and cold fluids and disturb the temperature stratification, resulting in reduced thermal performances of the storage tank. In this study, we developed a heuristic algorithm for optimizing the thermal performance of a single molten-salt thermocline tank. The solution is based on the insertion of perforated baffles as the inlet/outlet distributors. 2D Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model-based simulations were performed to calculate the transient flow and temperature profiles in the storage tank during the charging and discharging operations. The optimal size distribution of orifices on the upper baffle has been determined for homogenizing passage times of the thermal front, so as to better maintain the temperature stratification. A novel intermediate evaluation indicator was introduced to characterize the real-time thermal behavior, which could reduce the calculation cost by a factor of 10. Numerical results obtained indicated that our optimization algorithm could significantly improve the thermal performances, indicated by the increased values of charging/discharging efficiency, the capacity ratio and the overall efficiency, ex., fully charging efficiency be increased by 29% from the unstructured tank geometry to that one with optimized baffles. The parametric study on certain geometry and operating factors also demonstrated that the proposed optimization algorithm was robust, effective and efficient. 
 

Nearly free and sustainble electric power for all

Rajendra Singh

Rajendra Singh

D. Houser Banks Professor

Clemson University

USA

ABSTRACT

Free fuel based energy sources (solar and wind) are demonstrating long term trends  toward a future in which sustainable energy in the form of electricity is affordable, abundant and deployed with high energy efficiency. These trends are going to have major economic, geo-political and environmental benefits to humanity. Local generation of electrical power by photovoltaics and storage in lithium ion batteries further reduces the cost of electrical power.  Due to its inherent compatibility with electromagnetic and semiconductor technologies, electrical energy can be transformed easily, cost-effectively and with high efficiency into other forms of energy. Advancement in technology and volume manufacturing, similar to photovoltaic modules is mainly responsible for the cost reduction of lithium ion batteries. As compared to alternating current power, at least 30 % capital cost and the cost of electric power is saved by local DC power networks. Both for electrification of transportation and desalination, PV and batteries based local power networks provide sustainable low-cost solutions. The combined price for solar energy plus storage is just 3.3 cents per kWh, the lowest ever in the US and cheaper than electricity from a natural gas-powered generating plant Ultra large scale manufacturing of PV and battery based power networks, no trade barriers, vertically integrated business model and energy and financial policies in the interest of public at large can provide the cost of electric power around the clock in the range of $0.02-$0.03 in the next 2-3 years. The key objective of this key note address is to provide technical directions, new business models, equitable financial and energy policies that will provide sustainable electric power to all.

Composite micro-nano-hetro-structures for nuclear power applications

Liviu Popa-Simil

Liviu Popa-Simil

Executive Director

USA

ABSTRACT

Nuclear power as we know today has embedded difficulties that finally translated in many accidents and an increase in cost of the energy delivered this way. Main problem is the accelerated degradation of nuclear fuel under the action of fission products, transmutation products and radiation inside the active zone, corroborated with improper temperature distribution and mechanical stress induced during operation. The searches to solve these problems conducted to development of micro-nano-hetero structures able to use nuclear reaction kinematics to self separate the fission products from the nuclear fuel in microstructures, generically called “Cer-Liq-Mesh”, made of nuclear fuel (UO2, PuO2, UN, PuN, PuC, etc) micro-beads, with dimensions inside fission products range, chemically stabilized by a thin coating, soaked in liquid metal fluid. In order to assure mechanical stability the micro-beads are suspended on a wire mesh, or felt that is also elastic. As further analyzed, fission products share about 170 MeV in kinetic energy, and in interaction with the matter surrounding the fission origin they behave like charged particles depositing energy as ionization and nuclear recoil towards the end of the stopping range. In solid matter the nuclear recoil zone, also known as Bragg peak is characterized by having many remnant defects as dislocations. The new solid-liquid composite material, places Bragg peak in liquid, that has exhibits no remnant structural damage. Transmutation products have shorter stopping range in nuclear fuel in nm range, and in order to extract them, a nano-clustered porous hetero-structure have been developed, where the pores are open and flooded with an extraction fluid, acting as a drain liquid. Nano-cluster exhibit special properties [1] for impurities, different from bulk material, that makes a transmutation product created inside a nano-cluster to be expelled on the boundary from where the extraction liquid washes it out. In an ideal case, the micro-bead may be made of a nano-clustered structure contained inside the coating layer together with the extraction liquid. This type of nuclear fuel material that contains a porous nano-clustered structure embedded or forming a micro-hetero structure allows the separate extraction of the fission products from the micro-fluid and transmutation products from the nano-fluid may be packed together inside a cladding creating fuel pellet, that may be fully compatible and replace the actual nuclear fuel. The advantage is that after a reasonable burnout, the fission or fission and transmutation products may be extracted on spot and the fuel may be reprocessed pellet by pellet, transferred in a new cladding and used in a breed and burn scheme, reducing the need for enrichment, and by this improving the nuclear fuel cycle and nonproliferation resistance.

Composite micro-nano-hetro-structures for nuclear power applications

Liviu Popa-Simil

Liviu Popa-Simil

Executive Director

USA

ABSTRACT

Nuclear power as we know today has embedded difficulties that finally translated in many accidents and an increase in cost of the energy delivered this way. Main problem is the accelerated degradation of nuclear fuel under the action of fission products, transmutation products and radiation inside the active zone, corroborated with improper temperature distribution and mechanical stress induced during operation. The searches to solve these problems conducted to development of micro-nano-hetero structures able to use nuclear reaction kinematics to self separate the fission products from the nuclear fuel in microstructures, generically called “Cer-Liq-Mesh”, made of nuclear fuel (UO2, PuO2, UN, PuN, PuC, etc) micro-beads, with dimensions inside fission products range, chemically stabilized by a thin coating, soaked in liquid metal fluid. In order to assure mechanical stability the micro-beads are suspended on a wire mesh, or felt that is also elastic. As further analyzed, fission products share about 170 MeV in kinetic energy, and in interaction with the matter surrounding the fission origin they behave like charged particles depositing energy as ionization and nuclear recoil towards the end of the stopping range. In solid matter the nuclear recoil zone, also known as Bragg peak is characterized by having many remnant defects as dislocations. The new solid-liquid composite material, places Bragg peak in liquid, that has exhibits no remnant structural damage. Transmutation products have shorter stopping range in nuclear fuel in nm range, and in order to extract them, a nano-clustered porous hetero-structure have been developed, where the pores are open and flooded with an extraction fluid, acting as a drain liquid. Nano-cluster exhibit special properties [1] for impurities, different from bulk material, that makes a transmutation product created inside a nano-cluster to be expelled on the boundary from where the extraction liquid washes it out. In an ideal case, the micro-bead may be made of a nano-clustered structure contained inside the coating layer together with the extraction liquid. This type of nuclear fuel material that contains a porous nano-clustered structure embedded or forming a micro-hetero structure allows the separate extraction of the fission products from the micro-fluid and transmutation products from the nano-fluid may be packed together inside a cladding creating fuel pellet, that may be fully compatible and replace the actual nuclear fuel. The advantage is that after a reasonable burnout, the fission or fission and transmutation products may be extracted on spot and the fuel may be reprocessed pellet by pellet, transferred in a new cladding and used in a breed and burn scheme, reducing the need for enrichment, and by this improving the nuclear fuel cycle and nonproliferation resistance.

Meta-material made super-capacitor that harvests nuclear particles kinetic energy and delivers it as electricity

Liviu Popa-Simil

Liviu Popa-Simil

Executive Director

USA

ABSTRACT

Energy released in nuclear reactions is by one million times larger than that delivered in chemical processes, and using engineered nano-hetero structures it become possible to produce battery like systems. There are three types of batteries that can be produced, generically called: - isotopic batteries, known for using nuclear transmutation reactions that release alpha or beta radiation, that is harvested and converted into electricity, previously known as alpha or beta voltaic, one such battery delivering the energy of more than 100,000 same power chemical batteries. - fission batteries, delivering energy at demand, being in fact a solid-state compact nuclear reactor, where the meta-material inside is harvesting the energy of the fission products , which are over 200 times more energetic than decay reactions, and - fusion batteries, where the meta-material is harvesting the energy of the fusion reactors, where fusion is up to three times more energetic than fission. Complementary these meta-materials may be morphed on surfaces, able to convert particle beam energy, useful in space beamed power applications, and being hyperbolic metastructures for some combinations they exhibit intense EM properties, being possible of emitting THz up to optical radiation. There are many functional configurations of meta-materials that may be used, to convert moving particle energy into electricity as: - planar structures, made of parallel nano-layers of materials , where for harvesting the energy of a 3 micron thick alpha emitter, as 210Po, 239Pu, 241Am, it takes a harvesting double foil of about 50 μm thick, useful for self-powered electronic modules, or long term batteries. For example using 40 g of pore 238Pu, it may produce a 200 g, 40cc, 15 W battery, able to power an artificial hart for more than 40 y, or 400 y lifetime batteries for space applications by using 241Am. In a modified configuration, the meta-material may work similar to a laser emitting THz or visible radiation for the same lifetime for data communication purposes. - nano-beaded structures, made of a distribution of nano-beads embedded into an amorphous dielectric structure, that have higher operating temperatures and efficiencies than planar structures, and - heterogeneous nano-tube structures, believed to exhibit higher conversion efficiencies, over 90%, for isotropic radiation, but exhibiting real constructive difficulties, being now only a theoretical endeavor. The project is in TRL=3 stage, having some simulations and ion beam tests accomplished, and more work is needed to develop the highly functional and reliable power sources.

Heat Transfer Analysis on Effect of MPL as well as Thicknesses of PEM and GDL on Temperature Distribution in Single Cell of PEFC Operated at Higher temperature than Usual

Akira Nishimura

Akira Nishimura

Professor

Japan

ABSTRACT

According to the roadmap of the Japanese government1, it is recommended to operate Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell at a temperature for stationary application during the period from 2020 to 2025. However, the present PEFC with Nafion polymer electrolyte membrane is operated within the temperature. It is important to understand the temperature distribution in a cell of PEFC in order to improve the performance and to realize the long life span. This study focuses on the use of a microporous layer, which can promote moisture transfer to control the temperature distribution.

Future prospects and confines of biorefinery- an Indian perspective

Anil Kumar Sarma

Anil Kumar Sarma

Professor

India

ABSTRACT

In the current rate of production, the surplus biomass resources available in the country is ~ 660 MMT, which is projected to increase by ~ 850 MMT in 2030. Recently federal Govt. of India declared a target of 20% ethanol blending in gasoline by 2024 and 10% biodiesel substitution in diesel. In order to achieve this target molasses, sugarcane bagasse, lignocellulosic biomass such as rice straw, maize, grass, etc may be used which constitute about 20% of the surplus biomass. Second generation(2G) ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass such as paddy straw is still in an infant stage due to not very encouraging economical process technology. While paddy straw-based CBG(Bio-CNG) plants are relatively highly favorable due to the successful operation of several biogas plants in the country. Availability of several mesophilic and thermophilic consortiums, additional technology for conversion of digested slurry to organic fertilizer, and by-products SO2 conversion to H2SO4 enables favorable competition with enzymatic hydrolysis for 2G ethanol.  In the area of biodiesel or green diesel substitution from nonedible vegetable oil or used cooking oil, there is an ambitious target although resources are very limited as of now. Resource collection is the most challenging task as used cooking oil/ nonedible oil resources are not appropriately localized but scattered throughout the country. Moreover, these are also the feedstock for soap and other chemical manufacturing Industries. At the maximum of  ~ 10-20 MMT oil may be made available for biofuel production. Thus, the concept of whole oilseed conversion to biofuel, materials, and energy may be more appropriate in a biorefinery model.  It will definitely be a boost to the technology utilization if the catalyst used for such processes are biomass-derived leading to complete green technology for biomass conversion to biofuels. Crude glycerol conversion to value-added products could be another integration in this green technology.

Low viscosity biodiesel production through targeted modulation of Brassica Seed Triglycerides Pathway

Iqbal Munir

Iqbal Munir

Director

Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Energy crises along with environmental concerns are driving researchers to develop viable alternative fuels from renewable resources. The use of Brassica juncea oil as an alternative fuel suffers from problems such as high viscosity, low volatility and poor cold temperature properties. The seed of Euonymus alatus produces low viscosity oil having unusual triacylglycerol (TAGs) called acetyl triacylglycerol (acTAGs) where the sn-3 position is esterified with acetate instead of a long chain fatty acid. The enzyme Euonymous alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransfrase (EaDacT) present in these plants is an acetyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce acTAG. In order to reduce the viscosity of Brassica juncea oil by synthesizing acTAG, we have developed an efficient and simple agrobacterium mediated floral dip transformation method to generate transgenic Brassica juncea plants. A binary vector containing the EaDacT gene under the transcriptional control of a glycinin promoter and with a basta selection marker was transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV-3101 through electroporation. Basta is a herbicide which is used as a selection marker to allow us to conveniently screen very young transgenic plants from a large number of untransformed plants. The basta resistant putative transgenic plants were further confirmed by PCR. Biochemical analyses of the transgenic B. juncea seed revealed modified fatty acids profile having no acetyl TAGs. Alternative strategy is in process to silence genes encoding enzymes DGAT/PDAT along with overexpression of EaDAcT, that will hopefully produce acetyl TAGs.

Energy performance of hydrothermal carbonization of wet biomass residue from Olive Oil production

Stephane Bostyn

Stephane Bostyn

associate professor

France

ABSTRACT

Biomass and waste conversion into energy resources is performed via different processes; such as biological, thermochemical and physical transformations. Thermochemical processes can be classified by combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, and hydrothermal processes. The latter technology has a significant asset over the others since it can treat wet biomass without having the need to pass by the drying stage which is associated with high costs and energy consumption . Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a wet waste conversion process that takes place at low temperature in the presence of water, while generating its own pressure. Biomass, under the aforementioned conditions, is converted mainly into a solid carbonaceous material known as hydrochar, along with other byproducts such as a liquid phase (HTC liquid) and a limited amount of gas (in particular CO2)  Hydrochar is a solid carbonaceous material with an attractive potential for energy production. The aim of this work is to provide a global energy performance assessment of the HTC process applied to solid residues from olive oil production, namely olive pomace (OP), with moisture content. Doehlert design of experiments (DoE) approach was applied to analyze the effect of temperature  and heating time . The results show that the hydrochar mass yield and its fuel properties significantly depend on the process temperature. Moreover, HTC treatment increased the high heating value (HHV) of hydrochar when compared to untreated OP . An energy balance (EB) was also conducted on the process coupled with a wet oxidation (WO) operation (in order to treat the liquid product). It was seen that EB had positive values throughout the experiments indicating that the recoverable energy is higher than the one consumed during HTC even when coupled with WO