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Day 1 full schedule

January 20, 2022 @ 11:00 - 19:10

Insights into the chromatographic and DNA based molecular approaches in forensic entomology

Shyamapada Mandal

Shyamapada Mandal

Professor

University of Gour Banga, India

India

ABSTRACT

The current communication updates the application of molecular and chromatographic techniques instudying the insects of forensic interest. Forensic entomology, which relies on the study of insects growing with different life forms, and feeding on cadavers or in the place of crime, is an important tool in felonious investigations. This is an emerging topic of forensic science research under the purview of illicit drug use (medico-criminal entomology), bites, stings or allergic reactions (medical entomology), and stored-product forensic entomology determining the source and reason of food infestations. Forensic entomological evidence, on the basis of identification of different stages of insect life-cycle, is used to illuminate the advancement of alterations and damages to corpses, or the injuries. Nowadays molecular analysis are applied in identifying the forensically important insect species diversity that provides DNA database for further use in forensic entomology in criminal investigations.The chromatographic study on the other hand scientifically justifies the presence of toxic substances or poisons in the crime scene involving insects.

Forensic toxicology in developing Countries

Dr. Amarnath Mishra

Dr. Amarnath Mishra

Assistant Professor

Amity University, India

India

ABSTRACT

In forensic toxicology, screening and interpretation of forensic drug and alcohol and post-mortem investigation are two major section. The first issue of forensic drug screening is the accessibility of biological samples and the second issue is the availability of sensitive and key analytical methods for accurate detection, identification and quantification of specific chemical components. The basic aim of drug screening is to identify biological samples that contain specific drugs under investigation and to rapidly screen out samples that do not contain the drug. The sensitivity of the analytical technique is an important issue since chemicals may be present in trace amounts in biological matrices. Improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of analytical techniques have been attained by combining chromatographic methods, in order to efficient separations of compounds of interest from biological matrices, with mass spectrometry. The confirmatory analysis provides an increased level of assurance that a false positive result has not been obtained in the initial screening phase. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry is a commonly used confirmatory technique as it is specific for particular compounds and is quantitatively accurate and precise at low concentrations. Stability of drugs in biological specimens is extremely important in forensic toxicology. Post-mortem forensic investigations are performed on suspicion of drug overdose with either illicit or prescription drugs and in cases of suicide or homicide due to poisoning with several toxic substances. Drug and alcohol levels in death cases can be a major factor in helping determine the cause and the role of culprits in both criminal and civil legal proceedings.

Antidiabetic screening model using chick embryos

Srividya Lonkala

Srividya Lonkala

Associate Professor

Karunya Institute of Technology, India

India

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome with hyperglycemia. The present investigation is carried to find whether young chickens with diabetes could be developed by treating the chick during embryonic stage with streptozotocin or alloxan to develop an alternative animal models. Hatched eggs were taken, on the day 14 of incubation, holes were made on the shells of the eggs by using driller, and then were injected with STZ [0.3mg/kg] and alloxan. Control group kept without any treatment [n=8 per group]. The holes were closed using tape and the eggs were incubated for another 7days. Chicks came out were kept in specially made cages. After two weeks, blood glucose levels were estimated using chemstrip method using Glucometer. Hyperglycemic chicks were separated and treated with standard drug glipizide[0.5mg/kg]. The blood glucose levels were estimated at different time intervals [30, 60, 120 min].   The results of the present study indicate that STZ, alloxan- if administered during embryonic stage would result in a stable diabetic chicks after hatching and this model can be used to screen drugs for anti-diabetic activity. 

Forensic entemotoxicology in Indian perspective and determination of post mortem interval

Mayank Kumar Dubey

Mayank Kumar Dubey

Assistant Professor

Forensic Laboratory and CID Police Forensic Lab, India

India

ABSTRACT

Forensic entomology deals with interactions of insects and flies with dead bodies. Forensic entomology is the branch of Forensic science in which information about insects is used to draw conclusions when investigating legal cases relating to both humans and wild life, it  can also include other arthropods for the same purpose. In ecological turnover of nature, the decay of terrestrial vertebrates is dominated by sarcosaprophagous insects. On dead human bodies their action is normally inhibited by various measures such as burning or burying. Nevertheless, the exceptional circumstances occurring in connection with crimes or sudden deaths may expose human bodies to natural effects of environment, including invasion by sarcosaprophagous insects. These insects have sense organs highly adapted to the detection of corpses, and thus are the first to arrive at the scene of death. Conclusions about the time of crime can often be drawn from the character of insect fauna on the corpse and from stage of development of their larvae. After death the tissues of animals, including man, are still attractive to a variety of insects and other invertebrates. Flies, especially their larvae or maggots, figure largely in this fauna and include some of the species involved in myiasis. Insects and other arthropods found at a death scene can provide corroborating evidence regarding both the time and place of death as well as possible ante mortem and post mortem treatment of the victim. In addition to their use in the estimation of post mortem interval, insects may serve as reliable alternate specimens for toxicological analysis in the absence of tissues and fluids normally taken for such purposes. Because these factors can sometimes contribute to, or indicate the manner of death, it is important to know whether drugs, toxins consumption occurred prior to death. Pig’s flesh was used to study the life cycle of sarcosaprophagous flies. Since the use of pig’s meat represents a methodological procedure to get an estimation of insects’ presence as "forensic indicators". Chrysomya megacephala and Sarcophaga sp. were reared in laboratory for research purposes. The larvae were reared in moist conditions in containers open to air and the life tables were constructed in the laboratory.  Chrysomya megacephala was the primary species to breed on flesh and was found throughout the year. In this study, the oldest maggots were collected because the most mature maggots indicate minimum time since death of a person as they have grown from eggs or larvae, in case of flesh flies which are deposited on the body after the person has died. The larvae were killed by blanching them in boiling water and then preserved in 70-80% alcohol. The third instar of blow flies and flesh flies was identified with the help of posterior spiracles in this investigation. The effect of Poisons were studied on the life cycle of Chrysomya megacephala and Sarcophaga sp. There was increase in duration of life cycle of flies, increase in length of third instars and decrease in percentage survival of flies. The presence of poison in larvae of flies was confirmed. The PMI estimation using the concept of accumulated degree days shows that it gives good results in actual cases also.

To study the difference between three types of tears: Using Reverse Phase- High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC)

Anshumali Gaikwad

Anshumali Gaikwad

Assistant Professor

Cathena Education, Mumbai, India

India

ABSTRACT

The precorneal film present on the human ocular surface constantly does the function of keeping the eye orbit moist and lubricated. The precorneal film has three layers; mucin layer, aqueous layer and lipid layer. Each layer is dependent on each other to keep human eye immune and together mixture of components. These chemical components get secreted in the precorneal film at a constant rate under normal condition known as Basal tears or continuous tears and gets altered when subjected to reflexes, known as Reflex tears. Humans project their thoughts in the form of lacrimation (crying), in either a positive way or negative way, known as Emotional (psychic) tears. As each type of tear shed, are spilled on subjection to various stimuli, will change chemicals in each tear and this fact has formed the base of this study, to differentiate tears on the basis of concentration of ascorbic acid present and test this hypothesis by using statistics parameters, which on completion of this experiment was found to be true and significantly different.

The effect of sedative drug on time duration of life cycle stages of Chrysomyamegacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

Shabnamnaz Siddiki

Shabnamnaz Siddiki

Research scholar

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, India

India

ABSTRACT

Entomotoxicology is the finest branch of forensic entomology.  The probable use of arthopods for for detecting sedative drugs and other toxic substances in decomposing tissues has been widely demonstrated. In death investigation, Diptera and other arthropods can be reliable alternate specimen for toxicological analysis in the absence of tissues and fluids. The presence of sedative in dead tissues can also causes the effect on longevity and development of life cycle stages of insects. In present study, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species was selected for estimating time duration of life cycle stages during exposure in different concentration of sedative drug.

Coupling of microextraction with thin layer chromatography – image analysis: a new analytical platform in analytical toxicology

Rajeev Jain

Rajeev Jain

Professor

Central Forensic Science Laboratory, India

India

ABSTRACT

Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is known for its simplicity, simple operation, easy sample preparation, low cost of analysis, versatile visual detections and vide range of applicability. Recently, microextraction techniques have emerged as an eco-friendly and cost-effective alternative of traditional liquid-liquid extraction which are greatly discouraged due to its well known disadvantages such as consumption of large amount of toxic extraction solvent, labor intensiveness, emulsion formulation and need of additional preconcentration step. Coupling of microextraction technique with TLC-image processing technique results in a simple, rapid, effective, environmental friendly and cheap analytical method which does not require any sophisticated analytical instrument and skilled manpower. This new approach has been applied for analysis of drugs and toxic alkaloids in samples of forensic interests1-3. This will also pave the way to extend the scope of analytical method development for other important classes of drugs and pesticides etc.

Current techniques used in diatoms test and its future perspective

Priyanka Verma

Priyanka Verma

Assistant professor

Chandigarh University, India

India

ABSTRACT

DNA analysis is presently use to   identify humans  as well as   plants and animals . Forensic DNA   is a branch   of forensic science that focuses on the use of genetic material   to answer questions pertaining to legal situations, including both criminal and civil. It is a   technique   used in comparing criminal suspects' profiles to DNA evidence found at scene of occurrence so as to assess the likelihood of their involvement in the crime. Thus, DNA Fingerprinting analysis aids in the personal identification for forensic purposes   and has always been a driving motivation for law enforcement agencies in almost all countries since its inception. The introduction of DNA markers (Y-STR) has allowed for greater precision and higher discriminatory power in forensic testing. A criminal/ person committing crime after Bone Marrow Transplantation are a rare situation but not impossible one. Keeping such situation in mind, a study was carried out to find out the best biological sample to be used for personal identification especially in forensic situation. We choose female patient (recipient ) and a male donor. The pre transplant  sample (blood)  and post transplant samples (blood, buccal swab, hair roots) were collected from the recipient (patient). The same were compared with the blood sample of the donor using DNA FP technique. Post transplant samples were collected at different interval of time (15, 30, 60 and 90 days). The study was carried out using Y-STR kit at 23 loci. The results determined discusses the phenomenon of chimerism and its impact on Y-STR . Hair sample was found the moist suitable sample which had no donor DNA profiling upto 90 days.

Digitally Captured Signatures: Introduction & study of the different representations of the recorded biometric data

Nikolaos Kalantzis

Nikolaos Kalantzis

Researcher

Staffordshire University, UK

Greece

ABSTRACT

During the execution of a signature formation with the use of Digitally Captured Signatures (DCS) solution, the biometric data (i.e. X, Y, F and t) are recorded. The raw representation of these data is not familiar to the Forensic Handwriting Expert & it is required for the data to be represented in familiar and recognizable format for examination. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce the basic structure of DCS and biometric documents, to explain the raw data format and the available representations and to discuss the use of forensic software capabilities for the forensic examination of DCS. Finally, the problem of normalization of recorded DCS from different solutions will be discussed.

Simultaneous determination and quantification of selected benzodiazepines, tricyclics, and their metabolites in urine by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Abdul Aziz Al Bahri

Abdul Aziz Al Bahri

Forensic Toxicologist- Specialist

Forensic Science laboratory- Muscat- Sultanate of Oman, Oman

Oman

ABSTRACT

Benzodiazepines are the third most common drugs of abuse after opiates and cannabis, in Sultanate of Oman, and amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, and clomipramine are the most detected tricyclic antidepressant compounds in the urine sample cases. With the growing misuse of these compounds, finding a single rapid and sensitive confirmatory methods become imperative to increase the toxicology laboratories throughput. In this study, two enzymes (IMCSzyme 50 K U/mL and β-glucuronidase 150 K U/mL) were systematically evaluated for their hydrolysis efficiencies based on an analyte abundance in each enzyme. Most analytes under study showed higher response with the genetically modified enzyme (IMCSzyme) than with β-glucuronidase from abalone. Based on the efficiency evaluation results, IMCSzyme was utilized in the method validation using electrospray ionization- mass spectrometry in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring modes. The recovery, linearity, matrix effect, carryover, limit of detection, the limit of quantitation, accuracy, and precision of the method were validated. The method was used to analyze over 500 urine case samples that were previously screened for the presence of benzodiazepines and tricyclics. The technique is robust and efficient for routine analysis.

Forensic toxicology: An imperative for criminal justice administration in Nigeria

Christopher Ugwuoke

Christopher Ugwuoke

Professor

University of Nigeria, Nigeria

Nigeria

ABSTRACT

The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance and the envisaged benefits of forensic toxicology in criminal justice administration in Nigeria. Forensic  toxicology is a branch of Forensic Science that is concerned with the investigation of cases associated with poison. The quality of criminal investigation  has remained the primary yardstick for determining the success or failure of the criminal justice system in all modern  jurisdictions including Nigeria.  The advent of forensic science has no doubt increased the efficiency of criminal investigation especially in developed nations.  In developing countries such as Nigeria however, cases of poison are generally not entertained by criminal courts especially in cases  associated with traditional or diabolic medicine or poison.  The introduction of forensic toxicology in criminal investigation in Nigeria would not only enhance the efficiency of criminal justice administration in the country but will also become a veritable means of crime and social control.  Other benefits of the envisaged use of forensic  toxicology in criminal investigation in Nigeria will include the discouragement of the use of unreliable and sometimes harmful  traditional methods of investigation such as oath-taking  and trial by ordeal which most often result in miscarriage of justice.  It is obvious that many innocent  individuals have  become victims of these  unorthodox practices in Nigeria. This paper employs explanations and secondary data to justify the topic of the study. It is expected that  the out-come of this study will have a positive impact on  criminal justice administration not only in Nigeria but in other developing countries as well.

A short account of forensicodontology in France

Riaud Xavier

Riaud Xavier

Associate Professor

National Academy of Dental Surgery, France

France

ABSTRACT

From the Roman Empire till 19th Century, the dental surgeon was a legal consultant. Hisonlyrolewas to givesome informations. From 1897 till 1974, the dental surgeon sometimesparticipated to someassessments. But, hewas not oftensummoned by the magistrates. From 1974 till 1989, the stomatologistsweresummoned more than dental surgeons by the magistrates.  From 1989 till nowadays, the dental surgeons workedinsideForensic teams. Now, aftereachdisaster or each crime, the dental surgeon isalwaysthere.Hereis the true story of ForensicDentistry in France.

Incorporation of digitally captured signatures (Biometric Signatures) to everyday casework of forensic signature examination

Nikolaos Kalantzis

Nikolaos Kalantzis

Researcher

Staffordshire University, UK

Greece

ABSTRACT

Digitally Captured Signatures (DCS) a.k.a. Biometric Signatures constitute a new media that has been introduced in various formats over the last decade. Due to the increasing adaption of the DCS media by the financial industry with subsequent deployment of software/hardware solutions in Banks, Post Offices and government agencies all over the world, DCS inevitably caught the attention of the Forensic Handwriting Examination community. Contrary to the misconception that DCS technology should be approached only when a disputed DCS is part of the casework, we will explore and present the incorporation and use of DCS in typical FHE casework were the questioned signature is in pen and paper form but access to comparison material DCS form is available.

A novel methodology developed for deproteination of blood for toxicological analysis: A Forensic Research

Diksha Thakur

Diksha Thakur

Research scholar

Maharshi Dayanand University

India

ABSTRACT

Forensic toxicology deals with examination of biological samples to elucidate the extraneous components that existed in the body and were responsible for the commencement of offence. Forensically, blood is a relevant body fluid sample because drugs and other chemicals tends to bind with plasma protein. Deproteinization of blood sample is the first step conducted before the initiation of extraction of suspected analyte to procure a protein free, transparent and colourless filtrate. Numerous tedious, expensive and harmful methods exist in literature for the deproteination process. This paper presents a novel method that over comes the limitations of existing method and can be extensively utilized in forensic science laboratories for toxicological analysis of blood exhibits.

Chimerism Based Analysis: DNA Fingerprinting

Anupuma Raina

Anupuma Raina

Senior Scientist

JPNATC, AIIMS

India

ABSTRACT

DNA Fingerprinting analysis aids in the identification of forensic purposes and has been a driving motivation for law enforcement agencies in almost all countries since its inception. The introduction of DNA markers esp STR’s has allowed for greater precision and higher discriminatory power in forensic testing. An individual committing a crime after Bone Marrow Transplantation is a rare situation but not impossible one. Keeping such a situation in mind, a study was carried out to find out the best biological sample to be used for personal identification, especially in forensic situations. The pre-transplant and post-transplant samples were collected. The study was carried out using an STR kit. The results obtained focus on the phenomenon of chimerism and its impact on STR profiling.  The hair sample was found the most suitable sample which had no donor DNA profiling.