Day 1 full schedule
March 19, 2021 @ 10:00 -
University of Strathclyde
The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations predicts that the global population will grow to around 10billion by 2050 and consequently food production must increase by up to 70% to meet that need. The target has to be achieved in spite of the limited availability of arable lands, the increasing need for freshwater (agriculture consumes 70% of the world's freshwater supply), and other less predictable factors, such as the impact of climate change which leads to variations to seasonal events in the life cycle of plant and animals. Furthermore, agriculture faces a range of additional challenges from new pests and diseases that compromise output quality, generate harmful residues (drugs within the food chain) which in turn necessitate increased pollution management. In parallel, the growing trend of increasing farm sizes, and taking into account the remoteness of the farming community, translate into migration from established practices based on visual inspection to more automatic techniques capturing data from plants/animals dispersed across a wide spectrum of locations. Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) is thus core to satisfying the ever-increasing worldwide demand for good quality products whilst heavily reducing environmental load and resource use. The pressing need to secure food supplies ensures that the adoption of technology-enabled solutions and applications/services will continue to gather pace. Increasingly on-farm dairy systems (heat detection, milk analysis, feed management, etc) are being deployed through Cloud-based implementations, releasing the potential to provide a range of applications/services that bring benefit throughout the entire supply chain. The integration of multiple data streams yields significantly more value because a single indicator may return to normal over a period of time. The integrated data can be analyzed to determine correlations between input/output parameters for each individual animal forming the basis for a range of services informed by the relationship between both and dissemination of alerts through multiple channels. The paper details the features of a platform that implements PLF management strategies for the dairy industry. The platform elements comprise robust, high node count sensor networks gathering data from individual animals and a cloud-based software environment that manages on-farm data and pro-actively alerts the farmer, real-time, of key operational and management interventions. The principle is that if the needs of animals at the individual level are properly defined and met, then the needs of farmers and downstream stakeholders including consumers follow. The more precisely that needs are met, the less waste there is in the system, resulting in greater economic and environmental benefits. In turn, the creation of new business models based on provisioning a range of services to livestock farmers becomes possible, promoting the easy uptake of technology to all in the supply chain. The platform is scalable in terms of handling multiple data streams, able to manage farms increasing in size including hybrid environments, and support remote farms harnessing the growth of the connected world. The platform captures data from cows located in different areas, collates this information, and presents it to a mix including the farmers/herdsmen, veterinarians, feed specialists over various mediums, such as smartphones, home computers, or within the parlor.
Identification and molecular detection of shiga toxin producing E. Coli (STEC) isolated from raw cattle milk in Chitwan, Nepal
Hom Bahadur BasnetProfessor
Agriculture and Forestry University
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is one of the most common food-borne pathogens causing gastroenteritis with mild diarrhoea to life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Serotype O157:H7 has been the predominant type worldwide but there are an increasing number of outbreaks caused by non-O157:H7 STEC serotypes. A total of 267 raw milk samples were sampled from different sites of Chitwan District of Nepal using multi-stage sampling. The overall prevalence of E. coli was found to be 29.6% (79 out of 267) in raw cattle milk. Z3276 gene, a genetic marker of E. coli O157:H7 was detected only in three isolates (1.1%). All three E. coli O157:H7 isolates were detected with stx genes. The prevalence of STEC among E. coli isolates was 39.2% (31 out of 79) where as overall prevalence of STEC in raw cattle milk was 11.6% (31 out of 276). The prevalence of O157:H7 STEC is 1.1% (3 out of 267) where as non O157:H7 STEC is 10.5% (28 out of 267). The prevalence of only stx1 gene is 19.3% (6 out of 31) and only stx2 gene in STEC is 45.2% (14 out of 31). The prevalence of both stx1 and stx2 genes in STEC is 35.5% (11 out of 31). Out of 13 antibiotics tested, the most sensitivity of E. coli and STEC to an antibiotic was Azithromycin and the most resistance was Tetracycline and Doxycycline. The result showed that the raw milk was contaminated with STEC and thus, could be a potential public health problem.
Rebranding monogastrics (Pig, Poultry and Rabbit) productions of boost agriculture as a panacea for poverty alleviation in Africa.
Sila Daniel DamweshProfessor
Nakam Memorial School
Despite the gains that have been recorded in Agricultural practices especially in the developed countries as a result of technological advancement; Africa has remained a continent marked by poverty and food shortages even though majority of the African people are farmers. One important relationship between animal husbandry and crop production is that the former produces manure (organic fertilizer) through animal droppings or wastes which help to fertilize the soil for the latter. This is preferable to chemical fertilizer which has been shown to have toxic effects on the soil, crops and to some extent on the consumers (animals and humans). In addition, the natural tastes of the crops are sometimes lost. It is on record that the cheapest and easiest to procure animals that most African people keep domestically are the monogastrics (Pig, Poultry and Rabbit) hence no matter how poor a family is, it is very common to keep at least one or two of these three monogastric types. One major disadvantage of keeping these non – ruminants is the pollution caused by their wastes and urine which results in foul smell, accumulation of flies and disease outbreak. However, they can thrive on easy to obtain feeds which include kitchen wastes, maize by-products, local brewing waste products etc. and converting them generally into meat of high protein quality and calorific value. This paper examines the agricultural and economic advantages of these animals in the African context, how to manage their negative impacts and rebrand their production to alleviate poverty in Africa.
External unilateral fixator of our design for the treatment of selected mandibular fractures in horses
Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Most of the mandibular fractures occurs as a results of accidents: kicks or falls. The treatment of fractures located in the incisors’ region is quite successful with a use of wiring method. Fractures occurred within the body of the mandible are more complicated. Some of them are open and infected and involve the cheek teeth, which makes their treatment quite challenging. In these cases, using bone plates mounted directly on the bone would constitute poor technique. External skeletal fixators can be a good alternative for treatment of complicated fractures. The unilateral external fixator of our design presented here consists of the following elements: 1 rod with a diameter of 8 mm and length of 20 cm, 4 arms, 4 pin couplings and 4 pins. An arm is made of: rod with a diameter of 8 mm and length of 50 mm terminated on one side with a cone to be fixed using a clamp with M5 screw, clamp and screw. Stainless steel was used in the production of the fixator. The following instruments were necessary to insert fixators and establish fixation: 1. a drill with changeable attachments, 2. a drill bit with a diameter of 4.5 mm and a set of assembly tools (pin inserter, bent and straight hex key used to mount clamps and other fixator elements. External stabilization of the jaw fracture is an irreplaceable method of treatment in cases of open and infected fractures. Our fixator is small, easy to use, very well tolerated by patients and does not impede food and water intake. The device has been successfully used for the treatment of opened mandible fractures. An assembling and disassembling is easy.
Amelioration of heat stress upon supplementation of fermented yeast culture in chickens through modulation of physiological parameters
N. Anand LaxmiPrincipal Scientist
Directorate of Poultry Research
India is the third-largest egg producer in the world FAOSTAT (http://faostat3.fao.org ). Poultry sector contributes 1% to GDP; the poultry development in the country has revealed 6-7% growth rate per annum in layers. Poultry inclusive of chicken contributes significantly as egg and meat for human consumption (Harlan, 2007). For each degree rise in temperature between 96-1000F a 2-3 % loss of feed intake has been reported. As the ambient temperature increases from 60-960F the percentage of sensible heat loss decreases from 80% to 20% and evaporative heat loss increases from 20% to 80% (www.ces.ncsu.edu). Feed fortification with supplements like synbiotics, phytobiotics can help in alleviating heat stress (Tirupati and Reddy, 2015, WATT AgNet.com). The hypothalamic and gastrointestinal tract peptides are involved in the appetite regulation in laying hens exposed to heat. It is known that yeast culture has beneficial effects on the production performance of ruminants and monogastrics.
The water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion is the most utilized formulation in the poultry injectable vaccines due to its ability to induce higher potency and longer duration of immunity than water-in-oil-in-water, oil-in-water, and aqueous formulations. To reach a faster onset of immunity and higher efficacy than the standard W/O formulations, Sepppic developed a new generation of W/O adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 78 VG (ISA 78) by combining the enriched mineral oil with the immunostimulation compound. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of ISA 78 adjuvant formulated in virus and bacteria vaccines. First, galenic properties were tested in laboratory conditions in comparison with reference Montanide™ adjuvants ISA 71 VG and ISA 71R VG. Then, the safety profile Montanide™ ISA 78 VG was assessed in 5 chickens by injection of 1ml overdose of a bivalent viral vaccine in breast muscle. Safety was evaluated by monitoring animal behavior change and body weight and assessing local reactions by necropsy at D42. For efficacy study, In a first trial, ten 28-day-old SPF chickens per group were injected at D0 with bivalent Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza (AI) H9N2 vaccine adjuvanted with ISA 78 or standard W/O adjuvant. Vaccine efficacy was assessed by ELISA antibody titration up to D28. AI challenge was performed at D28 after vaccination to assess the protection rate and virus shedding. In the second trial, eleven 5-week-old chickens per group were injected with Inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccines adjuvanted with on ISA 78VG or standard W/O adjuvant. Vaccine efficacy was assessed by serum antibody against P. multocida up to D42 after vaccination. Vaccine safety was evaluated by dissection and observation of the injection site after slaughtering at D42. Galenic study and overdose safety studies showed that ISA 78 renders robust W/O emulsion and safer than standard W/O adjuvant. In the first poultry trial, ISA 78 vaccine induced significantly higher antibody levels than standard W/O adjuvant from D1 to D21. Vaccine adjuvanted with ISA 78 induced 100% protection with sterile immunity against AI challenge. In the second trial, ISA 78-based vaccine induced significantly higher antibody levels than standard W/O adjuvant until day 42. These results demonstrate that ISA 78 can induce an earlier onset of immunity and higher humoral immunity than standard W/O adjuvants. Oral vaccination is an attractive vaccination route for mass vaccination in the poultry industry. There are several advantages compared with injectable vaccines 1) decrease the labor costs of vaccination administration, 2) reduce animal stress, and reduce performance losses associated with vaccine adverse effect 3) improve vaccinators safety. However, one challenge associated with oral vaccination is the degradation of antigens in the gastric acidic environment. Sepppic developed a new generation of Gastro-resistant adjuvant Montanide™ ESSAI GR 01 contains to protect the antigen in an acidic environment and release antigen in a neutral environment. In vitro Antigen Release test demonstrated the gastro-resistant effect, and the mice oral vaccination model demonstrated the adjuvant effect. The safety and palatability of the Gastro-resistant adjuvant were confirmed in the field trial in fish species. Montanide™ ESSAI GR 01 is a promising adjuvant for oral vaccination in poultry.
Kurcheti Pani PrasadPrincipal Scientist
ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education
Although, aquaculture has developed significantly, significant contribution has not been done towards disease diagnosis and control. The success of any farm operation depends on health management systems. For this, proper disease diagnosis, prophylactic measures and control measures should be provided. The need of the day is quick, sensitive and specific tests that do not require sophisticated laboratory facilities and should be performed on-site. For this purpose there is a need for specific antibodies for designing and use of different immunodiagnostics. Secondly, there is a great scope for integration of passive immunization i.e. IgY immunotherapy which is a latest concept in health management. Specific antibodies produced in chickens offer several important advantages over producing antibodies in other mammals. A single egg contains as much antibody as an average 20 ml bleed from a rabbit. This simple, non-invasive approach presents an appealing alternative to conventional polyclonal antibodies production methods. Purification of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin Y (IgY), does not require animal bleeding. In addition, the eggs from immunized chickens provide a continual, daily source of polyclonal antibody, and this convenient approach offers greater compatibility with animal protection regulations. These IgY antibodies could be used for either developing immunodiagnostic kits or in passive immunotherapy against diseases and an effective alternative to use of antibiotics. This will reduce the use of chemicals/antibiotics etc. in the aquatic environment.
Association of polymorphic varients of beta (?) casein gene with milk production traits in malvi, nimari, sahiwal and h. F. Cross breeds cow
Akhilesh PandeyAssistant Professor
Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University
Research work was carried out on 50 Malvi and 50 Nimari , 50 Sahiwal and 50 H F Cross bred cow. In present research work the PCR amplicons of 121bp were digested by restriction endonuclease enzyme DdeI, which recognizes G^AATTC sites. Present association study of polymorphic variants’ showed that the presence of no restriction sites for the enzyme DdeI in both Malvi and Nimari. So one band of 121bp was observed on the gel and such genotype was designated as A2A2 type. Whereas in Sahiwal and H F Crossbred showed two type of genotypes A1A2 and A2A2.The result of RFLP revealed that the gene and genotypic frequencies of β-casein (CSN2) gene for A2A2 was 1.00 for both Malvi and Nimari breed of cattle but 0.00, 0.30, and 0.70 in Sahiwal and 0.00, 0.64 and 0.36 in HF crossbred cattle, respectively. So as per significantly higher LL was noticed in A2A2 genotype of HF crossbred among all the four breeds of cattle. The higher LL was also noticed in A2A2 genotyped animals as compared to A1A2 genotyped animals of Sahiwal and HF crossbred cattle. The effect of genotypes was found significant (P<0.01) for fat per cent trait. Significantly higher fat per cent was recorded in the different genotypes of indigenous breeds of cattle as compared to HF crossbred cattle. The highest Fat % was noticed in Sahiwal (3.19±0.19) for A1A2 genotype, whereas the lowest fat per cent was observed in HF crossbred for A1A2 genotype among all the four breed of cattle. The effect of genotypes was found significant (P<0.01) for protein per cent trait. A1A2 was not observed in Malvi and Nimari. There was a non significant difference of mean protein per cent in the milk of Nimari, Sahiwal and HF crossbred but all these three breeds showed significantly higher protein per cent than Malvi breed of cattle.
Surgical treatment of compound fracture of radius-ulna and tibia-fibula in dogs using circular external skeletal fixator
Dinesh Kumar DwivediAssistant Professor
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu
Four clinical cases of compound fractures of radius-ulna and two cases of compound fractures of tibia–fibula in dogs were treated in this study by transfixation using circular external skeletal fixator. The Ilizarov’s circular external skeletal fixator consisting of two full and one 5/8 aluminium 90 mm and 100 mm rings for radius and tibia respectively, six k-wire of 1.6 mm diameter each and six connecting rods each of 100 mm length proved to be satisfactory for the treatment fractures in this study. The parameters studied during the post-operative period were clinical evaluation, radiographic evaluation, haemotology and blood biochemistry. All the dogs were observed upto 60th post-operative day. From the 12th day onwards, all the dogs started bearing weight partially on the operated leg while walking except one dog which did not show signs of healing. The Ilizarov’s circular external skeletal fixator provided support to the fractured bone and the dogs were able to flex and extend the elbow or stifle joint comfortably during rest as well as on locomotion. During the eighth-week, all the dogs except one dog bore weight on the operated limbs without evincing pain. The Ilizarov’s apparatus was stable throughout the post-operative period. Radiographically, k-wire bending was observed in one dog immediately following surgery. Mild to severe periosteal reactions were observed in all the six dogs on the 30th day. The fractures healed with mild to moderate amount of callus, except one dog which did not show signs of healing. There was a significant decrease in the haemoglobin and erythrocyte count on the 7th post-operative day. After that the values gradually returned towards normal. There was a significant decrease in total leucocyte count from pre-operative day upto 60th post-operative day. There were no significant changes in serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum alkaline phosphatase during different stages of fracture healing. Transfixation using Ilizarov’s circular external skeletal fixator provided good anatomic reduction, axial stability of the fractured fragments, joint mobility, functional weight bearing status and prevented muscle atrophy during the healing of compound fractures of radius and tibia in dogs.
Acquired and Congenital Surgical affections prevalent in Chhattisgarh State and futuristic approach for their control
Shailendra Kumar TiwariProfessor
Chhattisgarh Kamdhenu Vishwavidyalaya
Chhattisgarh is one of the youngest states of India which is carved out of Madhya Pradesh on November 01, 2000. In Chhattisgarh, considerable improvements have been recorded in the Agriculture and allied sector. About 78% of the total rural population is of farmers and they possesses one or another species of livestock. Chhattisgarh is very rich in the livestock wealth with 1.50 crore animals against 2.55 crore human population. Out of this cattle population is the highest (64%) followed by goats (16%) and buffaloes (14%). Livestock is an important source of livelihood for the marginal and landless poor farmers. Livestock sector contributes approximately about 23% to the value of agricultural sector output. The cattle and buffaloes suffers from many surgical ailments such as Urolithiasis, Upward fixation of Patella, Bloat due to plastic menace, Horn cancer, Dystocia, Hernia, Rectal prolapsed and Tumours etc. which requires surgical treatment. The surgery significantly reduced the mortality rate and improves the productivity in animals. The measures have been adopted strategically to minimize the incidence of such animals and maximize the animal productivity in whole Chhattisgarh State.
Santosh A. GaikwadProfessor of Anatomy
Mumbai Veterinary College
The organ preservation techniques included here are: Taxidermy, Plastination, Freeze drying, Skeleton preparation, Formalin fumigated specimens, luminal cast by silicone, horn-bone articles and poultry waste. Taxidermy technique includes skinning, fleshing, tanning, skeleton preparation, clay modeling, molding, casting, mounting of skin, finishing and diorama preparation. By considering all these steps, taxidermy is the combination of five arts i.e. cobbler art, sculpture, carpentry, painting & anatomy. It is possible to perform taxidermy of mammals, birds, fishes, reptiles and amphibians and procedure to perform taxidermy is also variable accordingly. Skinning operation included the mid ventral incision from center of lip to the tip of the tail in straight direction (Mid ventral incision) and for respective forelimbs and hind limbs, the incision will be on medial aspect to connect mid ventral incision. After removal of flesh and fat beneath the skin, skin undergone for tanning operation to fix the hair follicles. It involves a combination of applying chemicals that tan the skin and the beaming and working of the skin that breaks up the fibers and softens it so it can be used. This work required hard manual labor to change a raw skin into one that is soft and pliable over its entire surface. In stretching of tanned skin, which was full of elasticity, will naturally stretch longer and wider than the actual size of animal from which it has been removed. The skeleton, in which the entire skeleton must be saved. All the flesh is cut away, and the bones were left attached by their ligaments and not separated. In clay modeling, the skeleton, now called the armature that will receive the modeling clay used to model out the form and anatomy of the animal. Note that with each position the animal is to take, the anatomy takes on a different muscular formation.
Suchitra Sena DandePrincipal Scientist
ICAR-Directorate of Poultry Research
Gut microbiota is attributed to the bird’s health, metabolism, immunity and has implications on food safety and public health1,2. Among food producing animals chicken meat is consumed to a large extent across the globe. Improving production performance of food animals could be achieved by understanding and optimizing microbial communities of gastro-intestinal tract. To prevent Dysbacteriosis, a common problem in broiler chicken single or a mixture of antibiotics and coccidiostats are supplemented in broiler chicken diets. A total of 120 krishibro broiler chicken of day old were distributed randomly into three groups (CON, ACFG and CFG) with five replicates of eight birds, in each group which were maintained on similar management conditions. Control group (CON) was administered basal diet alone with no antibiotic and no coccidiostat. ACFG group was given antibiotics chlortetracycline, tylosin phosphate and a coccidiostat, amproilum hydrochloride @ 50 g/100 kg feed each. CFG group was supplemented with coccidiostat alone at the above mentioned dose. At 6 weeks of age, one bird per replicate was slaughtered and the caeca luminal contents were collected and pooled in each group. Changes in caecal microbiota composition were studied using amplicon sequencing of v3-v4 region of 16SrRNA gene on Illumine Miseq platform. The sequencing data were uploaded on MG-RAST pipeline3. All the birds appeared healthy throughout the experimental period. Caecal microbial diversity revealed bacteria as the major domain. The dominating bacterial phyla in all the groups were Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes accounting to >90% of the caecal microbiome. Higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was seen in CFG group. The phylum Deinococcus-thermus, Chlorobi, Acidobacteria were represented exclusively in ACFG, CFG, CON groups, respectively. ACFG group was dominated by Rikenellaceae where as CFG and CON groups showed Ruminococcaceae as the major group at the family level of classification (Figure). The predominant genera with above 10% abundance in the caecum were Alistipes, Bacteroides and Clostridium in ACFG group, Faecalibacterium and Alistipes in CFG group, Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium in CON group. Hierarchical clustering showed similarities in ACFG and CON groups at phylum level. The phylogeny at genus level showed CFG clustering with CON. Supplementation of coccidiostats alone and antibiotics with coccidiostats influenced the changes in microbiota composition of Krishibro broiler chicken.
Md. Osamah KalimAssistant Professor
Chhattisgarh Kamdhenu University
Veterinary neonatal and pediatric patients pose a unique set of perianesthetic management challenges for the veterinary anesthetist. Challenges range from the patients’ immature physiologic system and altered handling of anesthetic and analgesic drugs to their small size, which makes IV catheter placement and endotracheal intubation potentially difficult. Even agreement on the veterinary definitions of neonatal and pediatric has been challenging. In dogs and cats, the neonatal period extends for the first 6 weeks of life and the pediatric period for the first 12 weeks (Bartges et. al.,2012). Neonatal and pediatric veterinary patients may be presented for either elective or emergency anesthesia. Neonatal and pediatric anesthetic patients have a limited reserve capacity in most physiologic systems. Neonatal and pediatric patients are highly dependent on heart rate to maintain cardiac output and blood pressure. They have less functional contractile tissue, limited cardiac reserve, and low ventricular compliance and therefore a reduced ability to increase stroke volume. Before general anesthesia unweaned puppies and kittens should not be fasted, and patients older than 6 weeks of age that are eating solid food need to be fasted only for a maximum of 3 to 4 hours. Neonatal patients are seldom premedicated however, with the possible exception of extremely debilitated or ill patients, premedication is beneficial in pediatric or young dogs and cats. Drugs like Atropine sulfate, Midazolam, Diazepam, Acepromazine and Butorphanol can be used safely with minimum doses. General anaesthesia can be induced by using Propofol, Ketamine, Etomidate or Alfaxalone using a minimum effective dose with endotracheal intubation. During postanaesthetic period care must be taken to assess the adequacy of respiratory and circulatory function, and support should be provided if necessary. Active warming must be instigated in hypothermic patients. Appropriate analgesia should always be provided by systemic administration of analgesic drugs as well as the use of local blocks, if possible to achieve better post anesthetic pain management.
Sudeep SolankiAssistant Professor
Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Parasitic infections are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diagnosis of parasitic infections in animals has great importance due to the major threats created by this group of diseases on the welfare and productivity of domesticated animals and wildlife. A range of methods and procedures aiming at the direct or indirect detection of parasite infections through laboratory examinations have been described in the last decade. Sensitive, reliable, and cost-effective laboratory test systems are desirable for conducting epidemiological surveys, as well as a prerequisite for routine on-farm parasite monitoring. Various host material matrices are being used to test for parasite infections, e.g., blood, serum, feces, liquor, skin scrapings, or saliva, depending on the parasite under detection and its localization within the host. A large range of different techniques, including basic microscopy-based methods, molecular, immunological, or recent nanotechnological tools, have been adopted to provide specific diagnostic solutions for the detection of parasite infections in animals.
Differential expression of immune related genes in placenta of malabari goats and its association with survivability of kids
Akshatha G DesaiVeterinary Officer
College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Goats are distributed all over the world due to their adaptability to varying environmental conditions. India is blessed with vast genetic resources with the availability of 28 well-defined breeds of goats which contributes about 20 per cent of the world’s goat population and stands second largest goat producing country across the globe. The goat breeds in India varies in their genetic potential for the production of meat, milk, heat tolerance, disease resistance and fecundity. Goat rearing is an important factor of economic development especially in the rural areas and the global trend from goat production is to increase the size of the farm to yield the greater returns in the terms of profitability. Improvement of reproductive traits in goats is of special interest as a small increase in litter size yields a large gain in terms of profit. The placenta is principle respiratory, metabolic, excretory and endocrine organ of foetal life. Placental function influences the lifelong health of an offspring. The placenta plays an important role in the maternal, foetal physiology and development, thus there exist the possibilities of variation in the placental gene expression patterns that might be directly linked to the maternal or foetal health. The development of placental bed and semi- allogeneic tolerance of foetus requires the study of gene expression patterns of the placental immune cells. This improves the placental plasticity thereby helps in the survivability of foetus. Hence the present study was conducted with an objective to identify the differential expression of immunity-related genes in the placenta of two groups of Malabari goats with normal kidding and early kid mortality. The placental tissue was collected from two groups of Malabari goats with normal kidding (n=4) and kid mortality at birth (n=4). The total RNA was isolated from placenta, checked the concentration purity and integrity by NanoDrop™ 2000 Spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA) and stored in -80°C. The cDNA was synthesized from mRNA (1µg) by using RevertAid First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Primers for IL6, MARCH1 and housekeeping gene (GAPDH) were designed and custom synthesized. Quantitative PCR was carried out in 20 µL reaction volume containing 1µl of cDNA and 2X Maxima SYBR Green/ROX qPCR Master Mix (Thermo Scientific). The reactions were performed after standardizing the cyclic parameters. In addition, the excepted size of amplicons and the absence of nonspecific products in the qPCR were confirmed by 2.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The relative abundance of IL6 and MARCH1 mRNA was calculated by 2-ΔΔCt method (Livak and Schmittgen, 2001) by using GAPDH as a housekeeping gene. IL6 was significantly downregulated and MARCH1 was significantly upregulated (p≤0.05) in goats with early kid mortality. Further, MARCH1 was selected to identify the relative abundance in the ovary, uterus, fallopian tube and placental tissues of Malabari goats (n=4) and thus to assess the role of this gene in reproduction and foetal health. The expression of MARCH1 was significantly (p≤0.01) higher in placenta (41.73 folds). Expression was similar in other reproductive tissues. The present study highlights the role of MARCH1 in early kid mortality in goats and can be chosen as a candidate gene for Marker Assisted Selection for improving the maternal health and early kid survivability in goats. The economy of rural goat farmers can be enhanced by taking measures to prevent kid mortality.
Effect of oral administration of red and yellow watermelon rind extract on feed intake body temperature and plasma metabolites in indigenous chicks
State Islamic University of Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau
Watermelon rind (WR) is one of natural source of amino acid of L-Cirtulline (L-Cit) and has been reported to have hypothermic agent in layer chicks. However, no report has been available for red and yellow watermelon rind extract (WRE) effects on feed intake and body temperature in indigenous chicks. 5-day-old indigenous chicks were given acute oral administration of control (distilled water), yellow WRE or red WRE with doses 10 ml/kg under control thermoneutral temperature (CT). The result showed that oral administration of both yellow and red WRE did not alter feed intake and body temperature in indigenous chicks in indigenous chicks. It is conclude that oral administration of yellow or red WRE could not effective as hypothermic agent in indigenous chicks.